The EPA's March 3, 2023, memo clarifies that states must assess PWS cybersecurity practices as part of their sanitary surveys. Read more to learn what this means for PWS, including what states will evaluate and what steps a PWS may be expected to take to address any cybersecurity vulnerabilities revealed. EPA is making guidance, training, and technical assistance available to help states and PWS evaluate cybersecurity and remedy deficiencies. Check out more EPA, CISA, and FBI resources from this recent LGEAN webinar.
The water and wastewater sector is part of the nation's critical infrastructure, defined in the USA PATRIOT Act as "systems and assets, whether physical or virtual, so vital to the United States that the incapacity or destruction of such systems and assets would have a debilitating impact on security, national economic security, national public health or safety, or any combination of those matters." The supply of safe drinking water and treatment of wastewater are both considered National Critical Functions (NCFs).
Public water systems (PWS) and publicly owned treatment works (POTW) increasingly depend on cyber-physical systems (CPS), incorporating both information technology (IT) and operational technology (OT) into their operations. The COVID-19 pandemic further accelerated movement to remote operations.
These developments make the sector an attractive target for cybercriminals, particularly when a PWS or POTW depends on outdated operating systems, has insufficient controls or lacks a robust training program. Threat actors targeting water systems include nation-state political actors, cybercriminal financial actors and current and former employees. Their motivations range from stealing sensitive data and disabling network components to disrupting operations.
The consequences of cyberattacks can be dire, ranging from operational disruption and system component damage to the theft of customers' personal data. Most significant is compromising the ability of a PWS or POTW to provide clean, safe drinking water, protect the environment and maintain the confidence of the public.
Fortunately, there are many resources on best practices, preparation and response and funding that even the smallest utilities can leverage to effectively counter cybercriminals.
PWSs and POTWs are urged to reduce the risk of a successful cyberattack by implementing best practices, training staff, implementing a monitoring plan and updating technology. EPA and other federal and state agencies offer multiple cybersecurity capacity-building resources [link to Resources below] specifically for PWSs and POTWs. Drinking Water State Revolving Fund and Clean Water State Revolving Fund loans and set-asides may be usedto build managerial, technical, and financial capabilities, conduct vulnerability assessments and trainings, develop effective cybersecurity measures and plans, upgrade IT and OT technology and more.
PWSs and POTWs can stay informed about potential threats impacting the water and wastewater sector, by:
CISA and EPA both offer numerous resources on preparing for and responding to cyberattacks [link to Resources below]
CISA, FBI and EPA collaborate in responding to significant cybersecurity incidents, from notification and assessment to making recommendations to avoid future attacks.
CISA leads the response, collecting reports of cybersecurity and incidents and providing technical assistance to protect assets and reduce the impacts of attacks. The agency helps with restoring affected systems, coordinating federal assistance and improving security after the fact
FBI handles the law enforcement and investigative activity
EPA directs water and wastewater sector requests for assistance to CISA, confirms requests are fulfilled and communicates alerts. The agency coordinates cyber incident response among the appropriate federal agencies, facilitates the sharing of information and intelligence and maintains open lines of communication to affected utilities and other stakeholders
EPA and CISA collaborated with the National Security Council and the Water Sector Coordinating Council and Water Government Coordinating Council (WSCC/GCC) to develop the Water and Wastewater Sector Action Plan to promote early cyber-threat detection and information sharing across the federal government and critical infrastructure community.
EPA Cybersecurity Best Practices for the Water Sector. One-stop shop for accessing multiple resources, including a Cybersecurity Incident Action Checklist, Water Sector Cybersecurity Training and Response Exercises, the Vulnerability Self-Assessment Tool 2.0 (VSAT Web 2.0), Water Resilience Tabletop Exercise and more.
Multi-State Information Sharing and Analysis Center (MS-ISAC). Resource for cyber threat prevention, protection, response and recovery for state, Tribal, local and territorial government entities. Includes 24/7 Security Operation Center, Incident Response Services, Advisories and Notifications, Cyber Alert Map, Joint Ransomware Guide, Cybersecurity Table-top Exercises and a variety of educational materials.
Cyber Essentials Toolkit. A set of modules, each focusing on recommended actions to build cyber readiness, aimed at non-technical leadership.
CISA-Multi-State Information Sharing and Analysis Center (MS-ISAC). Resource for cyber threat prevention, protection, response and recovery for state, tribal, local and territorial government entities. Includes 24/7 Security Operation Center, Incident Response Services, Advisories and Notifications, Cyber Alert Map, Joint Ransomware Guide, Cybersecurity Table-top Exercises and a variety of educational materials.
Stopransomware.gov. Resource center containing news, alerts, reporting mechanism and best practices for preventing or responding to ransomware.
Other Agencies and Organizations
Cybersecurity Framework (National Institute of Standards and Technology). Published 2014; updated 2018. A flexible and performance-based voluntary framework of cybersecurity standards and procedures that sets out a risk-based approach to managing cybersecurity.